Phylogenetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 strains in California showed cryptic introduction of at least seven different lineages, including WA1. In the United States, a study was completed in northern California and found that international travel was an important source of the disease. Genome sequencing has many potential applications for tracing the origin of an outbreak and preventing future outbreaks.
Phylogenetic analyses revealed cryptic introduction of at least seven different SARS-CoV-2 lineages into California
Phylogenetic analyses showed that the B.1.43 strain, which is a member of the B.1.1 lineage, was likely introduced cryptically to California. In fact, phylogenetic analyses revealed that at least seven different lineages of SARS-CoV-2 were introduced in California through this means. In addition to California, these strains were also found in Utah and Australia.
The UC21 and UC36 sequences were grouped within the SCC1 lineage. They likely originated from the same person, and the UC28 and UC36 genomes are within the same group. The COVID-19 outbreak was also linked to the UC28 genome, which was introduced by a traveler to Los Angeles from New York. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the SCC1 strain infected three other people in California, including UC18. These cases were spread to five other California counties, but not to UC26.
The mutation rate of coronaviruses is ten-fold lower than for RNA viruses. Nevertheless, coronaviruses acquire mutations as they spread. Researchers estimate that approximately 33 genomic mutations are made each year for SARS-CoV-2. This information helps scientists assign a specific lineage to a particular strain.
Keeping a WA1 lineage in a community
The UC23 and UC28 cases of Ebola were associated with passengers on the US cruise ship Grand Princess. Among them, there were 78 cases with positive laboratory results as of March 26. The ship was infected on two consecutive voyages from San Francisco, both with largely the same crew and subset of passengers. Of these 11 sequenced samples, three came from passengers on voyage A and eight came from the same ship on voyage B. All of the sequenced genomes belonged to the WA1 lineage.
The WA1 virus lineage has been confirmed in several communities in the US, and it has an early date and basal position in the phylogenetic tree. These results suggest that WA1 spread from Washington State to California and possibly beyond. However, further genomic sampling may change the final conclusion. While it is tempting to believe that the WA1 virus lineage is spreading rapidly throughout the US, the lack of specificity among outbreak clusters suggests that it is spreading locally.
One concern with a WA1 strain is its ability to impede contact tracing. This may explain why the WA1 strain has become associated with outbreaks in California. While there are some isolated cases in neighboring states, WA1 is associated with a community-acquired disease in Northern California. As a result, social distancing interventions may have helped to stem the disease’s spread.
Diabetes study of northern california
The Diabetes Study of Northern California is a long-term, multiethnic cohort study of people with diabetes. The researchers use standardized criteria to assess diabetes prevalence, incidence, and comorbidities in the region. Through this study, researchers can better understand the factors that affect disease progression and the quality of care provided to people with diabetes. The findings of the study are expected to inform the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Further, the results may help improve the quality of care provided to people with diabetes.
The initial survey was conducted from 1994 to 1997, among all registry members over 19 years of age. The primary goal of this study was to capture individual-level information on diabetes-related risk factors and characteristics, including ethnicity, education, and health-related behaviors. The study recruited 77,726 individuals who were followed up through 2005. The study has produced numerous publications, and it is the basis of future studies. The data collected will be used in clinical practice and for research.
The DISTANCE study is unique because it is a multilingual, ethnically-stratified, and nationally representative study. Researchers measured exposures based on income and educational attainment, and the primary outcome was the frequency of severe hypoglycemia. It included 14,357 people, and reported severe hypoglycemia in 11% of cases. Compared with the higher-income group, patients with low education reported more severe hypoglycemia.